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Data from participants who completed the baseline survey of a community-level HIV prevention intervention, which harnesses the social networks of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons, were analyzed. One quarter of participants Those who used websites or apps were younger and reported more male sex partners, a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. HIV prevention interventions for those who use websites or apps should consider addressing these risks for HIV.

There are profound HIV disparities experienced by ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, and transgender persons. Over two thirds The South is now the U. One emerging concern is the influence of the Internet on HIV risk. These apps display profile photos of other users arranged by geographic distance to the user; the other users who are nearest are displayed first. Users can then read profiles, chat with other users, and arrange to meet in person.

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These apps are used by a large of MSM. For example, Grindr, the first app deed for social and sexual networking among MSM, claims to reach more than 5 million men in countries Grindr, Samples recruited from websites deed for social and sexual networking were more likely to report engaging in unprotected anal intercourse UAI and a sexually transmitted disease STD diagnosis Rhodes et al.

Comparing risk behaviors engaged in with partners met online or offline, there was greater UAI Rosser et al. In addition to this focus about app use being associated with HIV risk, other research has identified the multiple uses of these apps by MSM. While sexual partner seeking was a primary motivation for MSM who use apps, it is not the only motivation Rice et al. Other reasons included friendship seeking and social support seeking Rice et al. There is a growing literature on the use of social media and technology by Latino MSM Martinez et al.

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Little is known about Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons living in the U. South who use websites and apps deed for social and sexual networking. The purpose of our analysis was to 1 describe the use of websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking among Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons and 2 identify differences between those who use websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking and those who do not within a sample of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons.

An authentic, colearning community-based participatory research partnership, composed of lay community members, organization representatives, and university health professionals and researchers, that has existed for more than 10 years identified priorities, developed the intervention and evaluation plan, and are now analyzing, interpreting, and disseminating findings Rhodes et al. The HOLA intervention is a lay health advisor and social network—based intervention that applies Social Cognitive Theory Bandura, and Empowerment Education Freire, to increase HIV testing and condom use among Spanish-speaking Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons.

The 21 navegantes completed a four-session, hour training and served as lay health advisors for 1 year to the eight social network members they recruited into the study Sun, Garcia, et al. Participants completed the Spanish-language paper-based baseline survey, which on average took 1. Most surveys were self-administered, although for participants with low literacy skills, the project coordinator administered the survey by reading it aloud in person. A dichotomous variable was created that combined both items; participants who reported using websites or apps monthly, weekly, or daily were classified as using websites or apps at least monthly.

Participants who had missing data i. Participants reported the of male and female sex partners they had in the past 6 months and how frequently they used condoms i. Consistent condom use was defined as always using condoms in the past 30 days. For each topic they had discussed, one point was added to the score.

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Participants reported whether they had been tested for HIV in the past 12 months. Participants reported what substances i. Two dichotomous variables were created to deate marijuana use and illicit drug use other than marijuana. Participants reported the of days in a typical week they were drunk typical week drunkenness and of days in the past month they had five or more drinks during one occasion heavy episodic drinking. Participants also reported how many times in the past 30 days they had been drunk immediately before or during sex and how many times in the past 30 days they had been high immediately before or during sex.

A variable was constructed to deate how many times in the past 30 days they had been drunk or high immediately before or during sex. Based on a set of true—false items used to measure knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention items Knipper et al. For each correct answer, one point was added to the score. Based on a set of true—false items used to measure STD knowledge Knipper et al. Based on a ly validated scale that measured how well participants knew how to use a condom correctly Stanton et al.

For correctly identifying the answer, one point was added to the score. A study about the validity of this measure for Spanish-speaking Latino men suggests it is useful for measuring social support Rhodes, Daniel, Song, et al. Bivariable and multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used to model the relationship between explanatory variables and the binary outcome while ing for possible within social network non-independence.

Backwards elimination variable selection procedures were used to determine the more parsimonious model. All analyses were conducted in Stata A total of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons completed the website and app use questions and were included in the analyses 19 participants were excluded for not answering the outcome measure questions.

On average, they were Three quarters Slightly more than one quarter Twenty-four participants reported using both websites and apps at least monthly, 4 used apps only, and 20 used websites only see Table 2.

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Demographic characteristics, sexual history, consistent condom use, condom use intentions, past month HIV testing, history of STD diagnosis, HIV knowledge, STD knowledge, acculturation, social support, and substance use i. Older participants and transgender participants were less likely to use websites or apps at least monthly, while participants with at least a high school education, who were born in Mexico, and who reported high condom use intention, consistent condom use in the past 30 days, having been tested for HIV test in the past 12 months, history of STD diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana in the past 6 months were more likely to use websites or apps at least monthly.

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There was a positive association between acculturation, HIV knowledge, STD knowledge, social support, and the reported of male partners in the past 6 months, typical week drunkenness, of days of heavy episodic drinking in the past month, and of times had sex while drunk or high in the past 30 days and at least monthly website or app use.

In the multivariable model see Table 3age, of male sex partners in the past 6 months, history of STD diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana in the past 6 months were associated with using websites or apps at least monthly. Those who reported a history of STD diagnosis and illicit drug use other than marijuana in the past 6 months were almost four times and three times more likely to report using websites or apps, respectively. Among this sample of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons in North Carolina, one quarter reported using either websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking at least monthly.

Websites were used more frequently than apps. There are multiple potential, and yet to be tested, explanations for this difference. Future research is needed to further explore these preferences and usage patterns, including the intensity of use e. Although the cost of the Internet and computers has decreased greatly since they were first introduced Additionally, websites for social and sexual networking like Adam4Adam have a similar layout to apps where users can be displayed from closest to farthest to facilitate in-person networking, so there may be less incentive to use apps.

Website histories can be fairly easily deleted but apps need to be deleted each time after they are downloaded.

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In the multivariable model, participants who reported using websites or apps at least monthly were younger and reported more male sex partners, a STD diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. The age, of sex partners, and STD diagnosis history findings are similar to other published research about MSM who use websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking Benotsch et al.

One potential reason illicit drug use is associated with social and sexual networking website or app use is MSM use these apps for multiple purposes, including substance use partner seeking Rice et al. Several limitations should be taken into. The of this analysis are based on cross-sectional data, and it is not possible to infer causality. Although it may be tempting to assume that the increase in of male sex partners and rates of STD diagnosis are due to using websites and apps deed for social and sexual networking, such conclusions are not possible with these data.

Another limitation of this study was it was a small, nonprobability sample, which may have increased the likelihood of Type II error and limits the generalizability of the findings. Despite limitations, the findings of this study have important implications for HIV prevention programs. As some research has suggested the use of websites and apps deed for social and sexual networking may be associated with increased HIV risk, understanding the differences between those who do and do not use websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking allows us to develop focused HIV prevention interventions.

Younger participants were more likely to use websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking. Given the increasing rates of HIV among young MSM, interventions are needed for younger Latino sexual minority and transgender website or app users. Several important risk factors for HIV of sex partners, history of STD diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana differentiated participants who reported using websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking compared to those who do not.

Interventions on popular websites and apps may be particularly useful to address these risk factors. The of this study demonstrate that there are differences between Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons who do or do not use websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking. These suggest HIV risk factors to address through interventions for Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons who use websites or apps deed for social and sexual networking. There is a need for interventions that use these types of social media.

Future research should de, implement, and evaluate interventions that are based in social and sexual networking platforms. Additionally, beyond efficacy and effectiveness, this research should also focus on the transferability to future and more advanced networking capabilities given the rapid changes in technology. Declaration of Conflicting Interests. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Health Educ Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Mar Christina J. Beth A.

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Sex Markets and Sexual Opportunity Structures of Behaviorally Bisexual Latino Men in the Urban Metropolis of New York City